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Risks of Breathing Chlorinated Air

The following page, from YourNutrition.com, cites

14 authoritative sources:



 "A long, hot shower can be dangerous. The toxic chemicals

 are inhaled in high concentrations."

- Bottom Line - August 1987, J Andelman, Ph. D.


"We conclude that skin absorption of contaminants in drinking

 water has been underestimated and that ingestion may not

 constitute the sole or even primary route of exposure."

- American Journal of Public Health, May, 1984, Vol. 74, No. 5


"Ironically, even the Chlorine widely used to disinfect water

 produces Carcinogenic traces. Studies indicate the suspect

 chemicals can also be inhaled and absorbed through the skin

 during showering and bathing."

- U. S. News & World Report - 29 July 1991, Is your Water Safe

 - The Dangerous State of Your Water


"Taking showers is a health risk, according to research

 presented last week in a meeting of the American Chemical

 Society. Showers - and to a lesser extent baths - lead to

 a greater exposure to toxic chemicals contained in water

 supplies than does drinking water. The chemicals evaporate

 out of the water and are inhaled. They can also spread

 through the house and be inhaled by others."

- New Scientist -18 September 1986, Ian Anderson


"Studies have documented the presence in the drinking water

 of many potentially toxic volatile organic chemicals

 (VOC's)- from chloroform and pesticides to carbon

 tetrachloride. Such findings have spurred investigations

 into the inhalation hazards these compounds may pose when

 released in the air during baths and showers. However,

 because shower and tub equipment, as well as other design

 features, differed widely in these experiments, air

 releases for a single VOC could vary up to 10-fold from

 one studied system to another."

- John C. Little, Lawrence Berkeley (California) Laboratory,

 Science News, August 15, 1992


"The steamy air of a shower contains significant amounts of

 a least two cancer-causing chemicals that evaporate out of


- J Andelman, Professor of Water Chemistry,

 University of Pittsburgh


"Almost two decades have passed since known or suspected human

 carcinogens were first found in municipal water supplies.

 One of them, chloroform, produced by the chlorination process,

 exposes millions of Americans. The potential for a major

 public health problem is unquestionably there, and yet,

 progress has been slow."

- Dr. Peter Isacson, M.D., Professor of Epidemiology, Department

 of Preventive Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine


"Skin absorption of contaminant has been underestimated and

 ingestion may not constitute the sole or even primary route

 of exposure."

- American Journal of-Public Health - Dr. Halina Brown


"Showering is suspected as the primary cause of elevated of

 chloroform in nearly every home because of the chlorine in

 the water. Chloroform [a known carcinogen] levels increase

 up to 100 times during a ten-minute shower in residential


- Environmental Protection Agency - Dr. Lance Wallace


"I tell my friends to take quick, cold showers", said

 Julian B. Andelman, Professor of Water Chemistry,

 University of Pittsburgh, who claimed that the longer

 and hotter the shower, the more chemicals build up in

 the air.

- San Jose Mercury News, September 11, 1986


"Many investigators have reported on the toxicity and

 unexpected high penetration rates of volatile organic


- American Journal of Public Health


"A Professor of Water Chemistry at the University of

 Pittsburgh claims that exposure to vaporized chemicals

 in the water supplies through showering, bathing, and

 inhalation is 100 greater than through drinking the


- The Nader Report, Troubled Waters on Tap - Center

 for Study of Responsive Law


"The National Academy of Sciences estimates that 200 to

 1000 people die in the United States each year from

 cancers caused by ingesting the contaminants in water.

 The major health threat posed by these pollutants is

 far more likely to be from their inhalation as air

 pollutants. The reason that emissions are high is

 because water droplets dispersed by the shower head

 have a larger surface-to-value ratio than water

 streaming into the bath."

- Science News-Vol. 130, Janet Raloff